In December 2006, Vinnova was assigned by the Swedish government to conduct an international benchmarking of the Swedish sectorial innovation systems in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and medical technology. Case studies and international comparisons of activities in different countries are important in assessing and understanding the Swedish conditions for life science research and innovation. The by far most influential country globally is the United States considering the size of the science base, R&Dinvestments and industry. The trends in the U.S. therefore tend to have a strong influence on the global development. Vinnova has thus commissioned ITPS (today the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis) to analyse and describe the situation for a number of life science areas in the U.S.
This study which is one of the above mentioned studies is based on data and information concerning primarily policy trends in the U.S. Life Science research and innovation system. The U.S. research-funding situation as well U.S. life science R&D in relation to the rest of the world is thus described as well as the large heterogeneity within the U.S. in terms of R&D intensity between states. Major federal funding agencies of R&D in the life sciences are described, their funding levels, as well as some of their prioritized areas. How agencies work to stimulate innovation at universities is also discussed. The attitude to international collaborations from the White House and agencies, in particular the NIH, is of special interest as is the impact of the new Administration.
This publication is based on published studies and information, searches in databases, interviews as well as analysis of the gathered materials.